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Ensuring water and livelihood security - Pune district, Maharashtra
CII-Triveni Water Institute (CII-TWI) undertook a watershed evaluation study for Pune district using world class integrated state-of-the-art tools. The key outcomes were:

1. Assessment of the water availability in the district
2. Evaluation of key schemes in the watershed
3. Demand assessment for the watershed
4. Recommendations related to: On ground implementable solutions/Interventions for water management.These included:

(A) Filling Demand – Supply gap:
     (i) moving from dams to the combination of dams and groundwater dykes. These need to be explored in
         areas where good aquifer depths are available in localized pockets and hence soil moisture
         can be retained;
     (ii) implementing strategies that can help in reducing losses from evaporation such as mulching
          and greenhouses;
     (iii) reducing water losses as well as improving water use efficiencies in agriculture
     (iv) municipalities, irrigation systems and industries both private and public to undertake water audit
           of their systems

(B) Adopt climate smart agriculture practices to help farmers adapt to the changing climate conditions to
       tide over the periods of erratic weather with dry spells.

(C) Optimizing wet for dry (Optimal utilization of monsoon flows) i.e. enhancing existing capacities for
       tapping the monsoon flows, can help in meeting the demands in areas/periods with less rainfall.

(D) Municipal Agriculture Interface and Municipal-Industry Interface such that wastewater from
       municipality gets treated and reused. This would also entail:
      (i) Adopt water management strategies at the Pune city level such that the city’s water demands are
          met with minimal water and minimal waste
      (ii) Recycle and reuse city’s wastewater to save freshwater usage
      (iii) Promoting water conservation through water audits

(E) Energy-Water savings strategy: incentivize farmers for saving energy and water.

(F) Demand side management: Rationalising water distribution i.e. ration irrigation water and incentivise demand side management strategies such as irrigation optimisation and scaling up of drip usage in the area.

(G) Decentralized systems for drinking water supply particularly in Taluks that receive drinking water through tankers. Here private sector involvement and dovetailing with the existing drinking water schemes need to be explored.

The study emphasized on the need to adopt a basket of options for overcoming the prevailing challenges, which can range from low costlow savings strategies to high costs-high savings strategies.
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